To neutralize that threat, the Egyptians forced the sons of Israel into bondage and made them to serve Egypt with hard labor.
But the more that Egypt afflicted Israel, the more they multiplied and spread out over the land.
Clearly it had to be more than 30 years for that would not have been enough time for such a great multiplication of Israelites to have occurred.
A time span of 100 years would be required with an annual growth rate somewhat higher than 5% in order to reach a population expansion large enough to field an army of some 660,000 men. Thus the majority of events recorded in the Book of Exodus occurred between 15 B. Moses’ leadership of Israel began when he was 80 years old (7:7).
So important is this covenant to Israel’s history that when the New Testament era opens we find Jesus living under it.
The major theological themes of the Book of Exodus clearly center on the developing concept of covenant-relationship between God and Israel.
The events of the Book of Exodus span from sometime after Joseph had died and a new Egyptian king came to power who did not know Joseph, to the setting up of the Tabernacle at Israel's encampment at Mount Sinai.
Now Exodus , 41 states that Israel had lived in Egypt 430 years to the day when Moses led them out.
In the course of time Israel had multiplied greatly, in fulfillment of Yahweh's word of promise to Abraham (Gen ), and the Egyptians began to view the sons of Israel as a potential threat to their security.He is instructed to write down the Ten Commandments (34:4, 27-29).He "wrote down everything Yahweh had said" (24:4), which included at least the Book of the Covenant (-).In this context of developing covenant-relationship four major theological themes stand out: (1) promise and fulfillment; (2) the revelation of Yahweh as the sovereign God who rules over nations and peoples and passes judgment on them, as the God of redemption, and as the God of the covenant; (3) redemption; and (4) the covenant and covenant-relationship.The Book of Exodus is based upon the fulfillment of Yahweh's promises to Abraham.During this time they live in a social community of houses and likely villages perhaps organized around their tribal clans.Although they are subject to harsh labor, they apparently live moderately well having plenty of food to eat. Though they are now free from Egyptian domination, they are now subject to Yahweh.Thus the events in chapter 1 could have spanned a time period of 250-330 years. C for the Exodus has been supported in the Introduction to the Pentateuch. The date for the composition of the Book of Exodus must, therefore, be between that point in time and when he died just prior to Israel's entrance into the Land of Promise (Deut 34:7).This would date the birth of Moses at about 1526 B. It is reasonable to assume, however, that the one year Israel spent in the wilderness at Sinai would have presented Moses with a good opportunity to write the majority, if not all of Exodus. C., the Book of Exodus could have been written as early as 1445 B. The historical context to the Book of Exodus is presented in the first chapter.Whereas before they lived in a sedentary way in houses and villages, they are now living in tents and are wandering in the wilderness and then encamped at Mount Sinai.Furthermore, food and water which was plentiful in Egypt are now scarce in both quantity and type, and they are totally dependent on Yahweh to provide everything for them.